The Mind-dependence of psychosis: properties of hallucinations and delusions

A long standing problem in the philosophy of mind concerns the subjective indistinguishability of hallucinations and normal perception. Macbeth’s phenomenal perception of the dagger cannot be differentiated from a normal phenomenal perception of a dagger. So there seems to be no way in which we can tell abnormal perception from normal perception. (Are hallucinations subjectively …

Should we believe in horoscopes?

Many people believe in horoscopes. The reason for this is that they tend to confuse a true belief with knowledge proper. Horoscope claims are sometimes true. If my horoscope says that I will meet a dark and handsome stranger, and I actually do meet a dark and handsome stranger, my horoscope claim is true. And …

How do we know that what we know is true?

Traditionally, we come to know things either through sense experience or through rational inquiry. We come to know the concept “chair” by looking at various chairs, and by seeing how chairs are used, namely, for sitting on. We come to define the concept “physical object” through rational thought- a physical object is a tangible entity …

Scepticism about the external world

The Dream Argument for Scepticism about the External World: (1) Subjective experience is either a dream or reality. (2) If subjective experience is a dream, then it is caused by the mind. (3) If subjective experience is reality, then it is caused by the world. (4) There is no difference between the experience of a …